Tiny Trees Post Mortem

An integral part of designing a game is following user-centric principles and iterating in order to provide the player with the best possible experience. However, some games have difficult components that are expensive in both money and time in order to iterate upon. This was the case with the game that I am the lead developer on that will be on Kickstarter later this year. Tiny Trees is a competitive Tree-building board game where unlike a large number of board games, it doesn’t lie flat on your table, but instead becomes a physical object in three dimensions. As you grow your tree, you have to try to earn the maximum number of points while also literally balancing your tree so it doesn’t collapse.


The game consists of 42 hexagonal cards that you slot together in order to grow a physical three dimensional tree. It was extremely time consuming to iterate on these components since the prototype needed high quality cardstock and had to be cut out by hand and individually drawn on. As such, the design process had to be predicated more on math and statistics rather than continuous playtesting in order to not waste valuable resources.

We had to determine what arrangement of cuts in the cards we wanted. The very first prototype had cuts on all six sides of the hexagonal cards, but I found myself growing roughly the same tree every time since there was no restrictions on what I could grow. Additionally, if each side of the hexagon had only one slit to reduce complexity, each side would have only two states: cut and not cut, represented below with a six digit binary equivalent.


When that six digit binary equivalent is converted to our standard ten digit unit of numbers, that gives a total of 63 possible arrangements of cuts on the hexagonal cards. However, this does not account for rotations or mirrored images. For instance, the leftmost hexagon shown above is still functionally identical when rotated 60 degrees. As such, when accounting for this repetition, there are in fact only 12 unique designs.

Although this number of unique designs seems innocuous, it was significant in my process since it established what could or could not be done with the cards. While we could create cuts that weren’t centered on each side of the hexagon or multiple cuts on one side, having knowledge of what options were available to us allowed for accurate design.

On a similar note, designer Mark Rosewater has repeatedly said that “restrictions breed creativity”, and I found that to be exceptionally true (Source). In the case of Tiny Trees, the very first paper prototype had cuts on all six sides. However, this did not lead to building any interesting trees since players would default to what they were familiar with rather than going out on a limb and trying a new structure. At the opposite end of the spectrum, if all of the cards had only two cuts, the players wouldn’t have enough choice in what they could grow. Having all of the cards with only two cuts didn’t provide enough options to the player, and six cuts provided too many, so the ideal must be somewhere in between. In the final version, there are five cards with two cuts, four cards with four cuts, and two cards with six cuts for each of three types of trees. We decided on this arrangement for three reasons: It gives an average of roughly 3.29 cuts per card, each number of cuts had a total roughly equal to 12 – the exception being the cards with two cuts – and the distribution of the values was appealing since each level has one fewer card. Additionally, by having more cards with only two cuts, it allowed the trees to become more interesting while the higher number of cuts allowed players to still have sufficient options in growing and balancing their tree.


While this math for achieving the average number of cuts per card (in which you add the total and then divide by the number of cards) is very simple, it still influenced our design decisions. Since we were aware of the average number of cards as well as the specific distribution, it gave us a much clearer understanding of the system that was in place and how that affected the player’s perception of the game. This in turn allowed us to quickly fix and understand any underlying issues that arose in playtesting. For instance, we were able to identify that even though playtesters didn’t directly address an issue with the distribution of number of cuts, we were able to more accurately identify it as the underlying issue due to the knowledge of the distribution.

At the end of a game of Tiny Trees, players earn points based primarily on two factors: the hexagonal cards that they grew onto their tree, and lifeforms that are also found on the cards. We added the lifeforms to increase the strategic depth of the game, as well as make the decisions more interesting.


The three types of lifeforms: Beetles, Mushrooms, and Birds

From the player’s perspective, without an additional incentive, there was little reason in selecting the cards with fewer cuts since it restricted their growth and made balancing their tree more difficult. By adding lifeforms as a mechanic, we had to balance three main factors: the number of lifeforms, the distribution of lifeforms, and the amount of points that the lifeforms were worth. In order to achieve this through math due to the limitations of our ability to iterate, we used a hypergeometric calculator liberally in determining these factors. Hypergeometric calculators are often used in card games where you draw some number of cards and then want to know the odds for drawing a certain card. In this context, we wanted to know and be able to control the odds more precisely rather than just intuition. An important design decision that we had made previous to adding lifeforms was that each option available to the player should be of equal value to a similar decision. This comes from the number of cards for each type of tree being completely equal, even to the distribution of number of cuts. Thus, we wanted to do the same for lifeforms, but be willing to alter that methodology given the numbers and math behind them. As such, we needed three types of lifeforms and more than one of each. We ended up settling on six of each type of life form, separated evenly between each type of tree. The advantage to this is that if a player wants to grow their tree with all of the birds available to them, then they aren’t shoehorned into one specific type of tree.

When it comes to the math, that means that roughly 43% of all of the cards have lifeforms, and that there is a 45% chance that exactly one of the top three cards that the players can choose from will have a lifeform, and a 25% chance that none will have a lifeform. Obviously that percentage changes as more cards are selected, but this knowledge helped us quickly refine the game – similar to the knowledge of the distribution of cuts. When it comes to what cards have the lifeforms, we focused on the cards with fewer cuts on them. Our reasoning was that if lifeforms are worth additional points, then the players should be incentivised for restricting their growth options, but not so much that it is obviously better than the ability for options and balancing your tree.

Then came the question of how many points should each lifeform be worth. Since the cards reward you for collecting more of the same type, so should the lifeforms. However, the scaling of points can be either linear or exponential. We decided on an exponential growth model, so that players are incentivised to collect the same type, but that collecting them incidentally doesn’t have that large of an impact on the overall point total. Specifically, the first two are worth one point each, the next two are worth two points each, and then the final two are worth three points each.

By designing our game while taking the numbers into consideration rather than just working off of intuition, we didn’t have to playtest or iterate on our designs as much as we would have to if we only gathered data from reactions from playtesting. While using this math obviously doesn’t eliminate the importance of playtesting and iteration, we were able to save a lot of time and resources from creating additional paper copies of the hexagonal cards and allowed each playtest to be more efficient since we were able to more accurately identify underlying issues and needed balance changes.

Magic: the Gathering Cube

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For those who do not know, a M:tG Cube is a curated list of Magic: The Gathering cards to create a unique environment to play games of Magic. These curated lists are similar to be played like ordinary sets, where players open packs of cards and play games of magic using just the cards they opened. However, since cubes are curated lists, the powerlevel of cards can be much higher than what is found in normal sets, or create wild environments that also wouldn’t be seen in an ordinary set.

My cube is designed to feel similar to an ordinary set in terms of composition, but slightly higher power level than the average magic set.

The cube originated from a pile of excess cards that I had lying around, and I’ve been continuously updating it for one and a half years at this point, ensuring balance between each viable strategy.

The cube has 10 explicit strategies, with over 20 possible specific strategies that are viable and can win. With only 375 cards in the cube, nearly every card must fit into multiple strategiees in order to make the inclusion, while also being of a high enough power level to be considered in the first place.

To see the full list of cards, please click here.

The Impact of Level Design on Gameplay

God of War released for the PS4 in April of 2018 to massive critical acclaim. It is one of the most sold games on PS4, selling over 3.1 million copies in its first three days (Quizilbash). God of War 4 tried to distance itself from its previous iterations, focusing more on story and exploration than its predecessors. In fact, Rob Davis, the Lead Level Designer for God of War 4, said in a lecture at USC that the game has three central pillars: exploration, narrative, and combat. Despite pulling God of War into a new direction, many elements within the game are made as concessions to the established audience so God of War 4 doesn’t feel too foreign. These concessions and usage of the three pillars are most evident in the level design, since the level design determines the affordances given to the player.

God of War 4 largely succeeded in creating a sense of exploration and providing incentive to explore. Comparing God of War to Horizon: Zero Dawn elucidates this success, as both games strive to create similar experiences in terms of the three pillars. The presentation of the two respective maps as shown below immediately elucidates the differences in the level design between these two games. 


Fig 1: World map from God of War 4 (left) and Horizon: Zero Dawn (Right)

Despite being an open world game, Horizon: Zero Dawn does not encourage exploration. The blackness at the edges of the world map in comparison to the fog of war in God of War is a perfect example of discouraging exploration. This harsh darkness quite clearly tells the players that there is nothing to explore in that direction, since the entirety of the world can be clearly seen through color. However, God of War’s foggy map border implies there might be another zone for the player to explore if they just find the right entrance. Furthermore, the map is far more granulated in Horizon, and has every location of interest clearly labeled. Again, this subtly tells the players that there isn’t anything of interest between these labelled points, since if it were interesting, it would have a label. In God of War however, the lack of granularity further suggests increased possibility, and that you have to look around to find the points of interest within each of the larger areas.

God of War also quite literally rewards exploration, where if the player wanders off the path a little, they recieve rewards that then make gameplay easier. However, this is completely optional and players can complete the game without needing to explore every nook and cranny. In Horizon: Zero Dawn however, the player receives either no reward or a small fragment of background narrative for exploring every cranny. This further disincentives the player to explore, since exploration does not help the player with combat or the direct narrative of the protagonist. Since the exploration in God of War is intentionally limited in its scope, exploration is more satisfactory for players as it’s only a small diversion from the main progression.

The other point that made exploration so successful in God of War was the Metroidvania style of exploration that the world provided. Throughout the game, players would unlock new abilities, which then allows the player to explore more of the world and gain access to more resources. This was made even more successful since the short side paths to the main level flow were often gated by obviously distinct elements that the player hadn’t been taught yet. Upon returning to the areas with increased knowledge, the possibilities of play are vastly increased. The failure of these mechanics is that not all of the affordances offered by a new skill created interesting puzzles. For instance, when the player unlocked the chisel, its sole function is to act as a key for a select handful of doors. This mechanic in particular did not create interesting puzzles, as it didn’t interact with other abilities. Since not every mechanic was as important in the exploration of the world, this reduced the desire to explore previously unlocked content again, the newer abilities did not unlock that much new content, and thus players did not feel rewarded. If some of these abilities created more interesting scenarios by using their affordances, it would have increased the investment in the later half of the game, where the game becomes a bit of a slog.

The earlier portion of the game was made even more interesting due to the integration of narrative and level design. This comes through most clearly in the boat, where Kratos or Mimir tell various stories, which humanizes all of the characters, and establishes a more genuine connection between the player and the characters. This also allows the player to understand the characters better and roleplay as them more effectively. If it were not for these stories and connection building, Atreus’s rebelling and moodiness in the latter third of the game would have felt less genuine and not affected the player as much, nor the moment when Kratos calls Atreus son at the very end of the game.

One area where level design failed the narrative of the game is through instances in the visual language of the game. God of War has a very clear design for where you can and where you cannot traverse since the player is incapable of jumping. This is usually very effective and for the most part succeeds in informing the player of what they can do in a given area. However, this occasionally fails. One instance in particular is in the River Pass as shown below.


Fig.2 : A failure of the visual language in God of War

This area in particular fails on several levels. The intention is that you throw Atreus up on the right in the small alcove, where he then walks across over to the left, where he kicks down a chain for Kratos to climb up. The first failure is through lighting. The area on the left is far more brightly lit than the intended first correct area on the right. Players are naturally drawn towards light in games, so players are more likely to try and interact with the section on the left before looking around elsewhere. The second failure is that of texturing, where similar to the issue of lighting, the markings on the left are made far more obvious than those on the right, further obfuscating the correct path. This design was most likely executed in this manner to make traversing this area after the chain was dropped more intuitive, as the path the player can actually traverse is more obvious than the path to solve the puzzle. However, this decision was most likely made before lighting on the chain itself was finalized, as most chains glint in the light which would have provided enough visual direction when returning to this area alongside the white pip indicating an interactable.

Finally, the largest failure of this area is that it breaks the player’s immersion. In this area, the right where you throw Atreus up and where the chain drops from are the exact same height. Since both of these are the same height, it doesn’t follow diegetically why Kratos can throw Atreus up on the right, but not the left, where Kratos could also overthrow Atreus to have him land on top of the platform.. As such, this puzzle feels especially contrived, rather than a reasonable outcome resulting from actual people. Raising the left side with the chain another meter or two would fix this issue by making it more obvious that the player cannot interact with it in the same way as the right. Breaks in immersion such as this one occurs several times throughout the game, where Kratos and Atreus can perform amazing physical feats at some points, but at other times are completely incapable of actions of similar magnitude. Although God of War heavily relies on metrics for level design, more nuanced metrics would avoid breaks in the immersion, making Kratos a more believable character.

There are three fights in particular besides boss fights that are especially interesting and stand out from the entirety of the game. Shown below, these three fights are in Tyr’s Hall, in the River Pass, and on the ship escaping from Helheim. 


Fig. 3: Three especially memorable and interesting fights

The element that made all three of these fights interesting and more memorable than the vast swath of generic fights is that the player must consider and play around an element besides enemies that the player has defeated many times over at this point. In Tyr’s hall, the flame geysers forced the player to alter their positioning or take a significant amount of fire damage. There were also ranged enemies spawning at the end of several trapped hallways, so the player had to either tempt the enemies back into the hallway or make their way through dodging both enemy attacks and the traps. In the River Pass, a fight breaks out under a spiked ceiling that drops down unless the player uses their main weapon to keep it up. This again presented the player with interesting decisions as the player had to play around this element. They could give up the leviathan axe to keep the ceiling up and punch enemies to death, occasionally stop fighting to manage the height and leave themselves open for counter attack, or attempt to bring the ceiling down to crush the enemies. Finally, the fight on top of the boat in Helheim added a secondary “loss” condition, forcing the player to pay attention to another factor or replay the fight. By trying to protect just one fire, the player quickly becomes nearly overwhelmbed by enemies, but splitting your attention between both piles leaves the player themselves vulnerable to the enemies. Furthermore, the grappling hooks physically changed the space of the fight by limiting where the player could walk, further making the battleground itself dynamic.

Fights like these three encounters also help the narrative of God of War by either literally being a plot point in the case of Helheim, but by better showcasing the characterization of Kratos and Atreus. While it makes sense that Kratos would not run away from a combat after its been started since that’s against his character, throughout the storytelling of the game, Kratos is shown as an intelligent character. In terms of storyline, Kratos’ ability to problem solve, such as the escape from Helheim, displays this intelligence. The level design reinforces this intelligence through the puzzles that Kratos solves throughout the game, and the aforementioned especially notable fights. In these three fights, the player can think creatively about how to engage in fights rather than mindlessly mashing. However, this is not true for most generic fights. While it makes sense for Kratos in Spartan Rage to feel more button-mashy, the more mindless fighting towards the end of the game doesn’t match the intelligence shown in Kratos through the other elements of the game. The more unique fights require more significantly more narrative work and setup, but provide a more engaging combat experience for the player through increased variance in play.

However, the largest failure of the level design in God of War is the concentration of these interesting combat scenarios, so many of the fights blend into each other and are unmemorable. The vast majority of the combats throughout the game are designed to be gladiatorial style engagements, where Kratos fights against a handful of enemies at a time, trapped in a flat small circular area. The final boss of the game, every Valkyrie, Realm Tears, and most generic fights all follow this same pattern. While this isn’t necessarily an unwelcome style of combat, the overuse of this singular type causes many of the fights to feel identical, and thus lack interest. This was most likely implemented to appeal to the established God of War player base, as older games from the series followed this hack and slash style gameplay. However, many enemies towards the end of the game don’t pose any significant threat to the player, so fights without any additional factor for the player to think about develop into an interference. 

In addition to the disconnect between narrative and combat, a similar disconnect exists between exploration and combat. While simply exploring the world leads to more combat encounters, many of the mechanics introduced as part of the Metroidvania style exploration lack combat integration. While Axe Throws, Chaos Blades, Shock Arrows, and Light Arrows have utility in fights, Light Crystals, Winds of Hel, Glowvines, and the Chisel were never included as a part of combat, while throwable Sap Crystals were only used in one combat, which was against Hraezlyr. In addition to these exploration mechanics not being integrated, combat arenas often exclude movable set pieces, such as the pulley system on the path to Asgard Tower. If the player had access to use any of these elements more creatively in combat, fights towards the end of the game could have been more varied and unique in their execution, and thus more memorable. 

As an alternative to creating more dynamic combat environment, the level design could have allowed for more varied styles of play. Since the majority of combats take place in close range gladiatorial fights, the player often does not have enough space effectively take advantage of axe throws, especially the Hunter-Killer series. This issue is made more apparent when many enemies are either immune to axe throws or dodge them, further reducing the utility in throwing your axe in combat. Furthermore, since many enemies appear after you enter the arena, Kratos cannot attack from any significant distance to pick enemies off one by one. While some enemies, such as Ancients, require a mixture of abilities to defeat, more enemies could have used this mixture of abilities to defeat, especially later in the game. If God of War had more unique weapon attack combos or enemies that required different approaches to defeat, it would further increase the interest in each and every fight, as the player would have to think about more factors towards the end of the game as they become more skillful and have the mental capacity to process the greater number of factors.

As a whole, the level design and visual language created in God of War is amazing and delivers upon the three pillars of exploration, narrative, and combat. However, the lack of variation in level design of fights, and failure to use all of the affordances of mechanics causes the later portion of the game to feel grindy rather than new, engaging, or exciting.


Quizildash, Asad. “God of War Sells Over 3.1 Million Units in 3 Days, Becomes Fastest-Selling PS4 Exclusive.” PlayStation.Blog, 3 May 2018, blog.us.playstation.com/2018/05/03/god-of-war-sells-over-3-1-million-units-in-3-days-becomes-fastest-selling-ps4-exclusive/.

Callois Within Overwatch

This research essay was written for a class final.

Callois Within Overwatch

Video games can be defined almost entirely by how their characters move. As Anna Anthropy said, “Verbs characterize the hero… Verbs are the rules that allow the player to interact with the other rules…”. As such, within nearly every game tutorial with the verb of “move” available to the player, that is the the first verb presented. Thus, the movement of characters within games is one of the most important aspects to how a game is received. For instance, Non Player Characters (NPCs) that you have to follow walk slower than the player’s movement speed, as otherwise even a minimal amount of distraction would cause the player to lose the NPC’s location. Getting lost would cause the player to get frustrated and not enjoy the gaming experience, potentially resulting in giving up entirely and ceasing to play. Another example within the game design industry, is “…a term called ‘coyote time’ for when the player walks off a… ledge… but the jump still works,” said by developer Chevy Ray. When a game lacks “coyote time”, the jumps feel difficult and frustrating, often leading to a player giving up on the game. However, movement often contributes to more than just how it’s received. In a game like Overwatch, the mobility of the heroes in such a diverse cast defines how the game is played.

As one of the most influential game theorists, Roger Caillois correctly identified that one of the integral types of play to be Ilinx, more commonly referred to as Vertigo. Players that enjoy this type of play “seek ecstasy by whirling about with movements” (Roger Caillois). This is the core reason that many games have physics that don’t translate accurately to the real world. For instance, nearly all Overwatch characters travel at 5.5 meters per second (SpriteGuy_000). In reality, the average person walks at about 1.25 meters per second, with running occurring at about 2.2 meters per second (Susan Paul). This means that the average Overwatch character moves at the speed of an Olympic Marathon athlete and never gets tired even without breaks (Michelle Hamilton). Despite this unrealistic standard, many characters within Overwatch like Lucio can even go much faster than 5.5 meters per second, easily reaching 11.66 meters per second. However, he is also capable of surpassing this 11.66 meters per second, as seen from the users on the LucioRollouts subreddit reaching maximum velocity with Lucio. This is achieved because when Lucio jumps off of a wall, he gets an additional speed boost that stacks if the jumps are chained together.


Fig 1: The Overwatch hero Lucio in various skins

When it comes to my personal experience with Overwatch, my most played hero is the aforementioned Lucio, a character with an area of effect aura that heals. Initially, I played him because I had not played many First Person Shooter (FPS) games prior to Overwatch and thus did not have the skill to utilize many of the characters effectively. Focusing on area of effect healing rather than damage allowed me to have a positive contribution to the team besides damage. Lucio also has the ability to change the aura around him to increase his own speed and his allies within that area of effect by roughly 30%. Furthermore, he has the ability to cling and slide along walls which results in him being one of the most, if not the most, mobile character in all of Overwatch. I have the most hours logged on Lucio simply because moving around the world is satisfying in itself as you watch the scenery blur by, further supporting Caillois’ argument that movement is one of the primary ways to play.

Normally, video games excuse the disparity between real world physics and video game physics by placing characters in alternate worlds, thus allowing the explanation of having different gravity to solve it. However, Overwatch is distinctly placed within the world we know. All of the characters are from real countries, and all of the maps are fashioned to resemble locations in the world that are familiar to us, such as Hollywood.

Fig 2: The Overwatch map of Hollywood

Since these characters are distinctly within the world as we understand it, the choices made in how players are allowed move is completely intentional, rather than accidental. This intentional disconnect between the real world and video games is most easily attributed from a desire to empower the player and make the game feel more “fun”. This idea of “fun” is exactly what Caillois was discussing with his concept of Ilinx and how movement leads to play. This thirst for power is very common within video games, dating back in first person games to DOOM, where the player was intended to be empowered and feel like they could accomplish anything within the world. This desire for empowerment through motion is so common to video games that they are described as “clunky” or “slow” if not provided with the same high speed motion that players are used to, even if the rapid movement isn’t even remotely realistic.

A game that exploits this is Sonic The Hedgehog. Sonic feels slow and unresponsive when moving at slower velocities, which is often a result of the player not being proficient at the game, or making a mistake. However, as players become more familiar with the map, they can optimize their movement, and then are rewarded with Sonic’s iconic ball shape and with travelling at the speed of sound.


Fig 3: A player moving through Sonic the Hedgehog zone one

The players are rewarded for moving well and learning the map with a wider breadth of motion on top of the mastery in which they can already perform, leading to a more engaging game. In a similar vein, Overwatch rewards the players for learning the map by including hidden easter eggs as well as enabling the characters’ superhuman mobility to be used more effectively, thus letting players travel about the map faster.

The use of superhuman movement to increase the player’s enjoyment of the game and empowerment of the player is integral to a player’s experience of Overwatch. This game values empowerment, fun, domination, competition, and teamwork, which can all be seen through its mechanics. The game consists of a two teams of six players each facing against one another where only one team can win. The values of empowerment, domination, and competition are all traditionally attributed to male culture, further adding to the common perception that video games are for boys. Oftentimes in art, taking the aesthetics and locations of real world locations or eras maintains many of the same core values that that location or era held, whether intentional or not. Since Overwatch maintains many values core to male culture, this is reflected in the player base. Like many other FPS games, Overwatch players are overwhelmingly male.  Interestingly though, Overwatch has twice as many players that identify as female in comparison to other major FPS games even though that percentage remains still only at 16 percent (Kirk McKeand). This higher percentage of  players who identify as female is attributed to Overwatch’s remarkably diverse cast of characters in representation and equality, which can be most easily seen through mobility.

C. Hart in 1979 observed that boys were more free to explore and wander far more than girls of the same age. Specifically, boys were allowed to travel a distance of 2452 yards, while girls were only allowed 959 yards. However, within the game of Overwatch, the heroes are remarkably balanced when it comes to movement. The number of heroes with easily repeatable abilities that increase a hero’s ability to move throughout the map has no significant distinction when paired with gender.

Fig 4: Two Graphs comparing gender and mobility

Additionally, the distribution of movement abilities is again nearly identical between the two genders, further showing how Overwatch runs contrary to many standard tropes within the FPS genre as well as why the game is as popular as it is to female players. For instance, female characters within Overwatch are not overtly sexualized, and if they are, it is for a specific character reason as seen with Widowmaker, who portrays the character archetype of the femme fatale.

So while mobility doesn’t apply to gender within Overwatch, it certainly does within hero pick rates and the metagame. At the time of writing this paper, there are 25 heroes within Overwatch, but since a new hero came out so recently, there is little to no data on the hero and will not be included in the analysis and data collection when it comes to hero pick rate. As a general rule of thumb, there are two types of compositions for the six heroes that you choose in order to be viable. You either play as a team as hypermobile characters that can engage and get out quickly, often called “dive comp”, or a slow plodding team that is focused on winning a battle of attrition, often called “deathball” or “triple tank”. As you can see from simply the descriptions, the speed at which characters engage are more effective when put in harmony. While mobility is obviously not the only factor determining hero pick rate, it certainly contributes. The chart seen above is data gathered from grandmaster level players within Overwatch, and begins as the metagame was shifting away from the quadruple tank meta (Switch). This change arose from players learning how to counter a prominent hero, Ana. Ana provided a significant amount of burst heal to the slower, bulkier tanks that also moved slower and supported the “deathball” strategy more than other heroes.


Fig 5: A graph showing how the rate at which heroes are selected has changed over time

The counter was an extremely mobile tank hero called Winston, who could “dive” on Ana and take her out, then safely run away. This realization of a counter coupled with the nerf of another tank, Roadhog which was one of Ana’s best targets to heal, is what lead to Winston’s large rise in hero selection around July 1 and Ana’s descent. This trend in hero selection also increased the viability of D.VA who similar to Winston, is capable of “Diving” into a conflict then safely running away. Similarly, other mobile damage dealing characters saw an increase in pick rate, and then healers that better supported the mobility plan also saw an increase in the rate at which they were selected.

However, despite Ana seeing less play as result of the new “Dive” composition, there has yet to be another large shift away from dive comp. This comes from a variety of reasons, but for one, people are slow to adapt. Even if there is a strategy that may work better than what people are used to, they stick to the “safe” option and what they know. Furthermore, Dive comps are a very “all in” style of play. This appeals to the majority of the playerbase, as it more similarly resembles other FPS games, in that the team charges in, guns a blazing. This results in the resulting fight between the two teams not lasting very long, which allows the players more attempts to try and win an engagement. Furthermore, because the heros can all move very quickly, they reduce the travel time between spawning and fighting, allowing them even more opportunities to try and win the fight.

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Fig 6: Dive comp versus Deathball. Dive is in yellow, while Deathball is in light blue.

This is why Lucio saw over 50% pick rate until the drastic rise in popularity of Mercy: he easily supported the two most common composition strategies. In a “deathball” composition, he provided speed to get the teammates back to the fight faster than they normally would, and then could heal all of his teammates as they were usually clustered together. In a “dive” composition, he had the speed to keep up with his teammates, and continue healing them as they engaged the enemy.

The most startling and dramatic change in hero pick rate occurred at around September 15, where Mercy’s pick rate jumped from about 55% to 100%. This initially resulted from a reworking of all of Mercy’s abilities, but also affected how often other heroes were selected. For instance, Zenyatta’s pick rate increased by about 20%, as while he himself is not very mobile, his healing that he provides is designed to support other mobile characters, as it doesn’t require line of sight. Since the general perception of the game in Overwatch is that a team requires one or two healers, the rise in popularity of Mercy and Zenyatta had to draw from the pick rate of Lucio, which accounts for the reduction in Lucio’s pick rate.

The large increase in Junkrat playability around September 1 came from a buff that he received increasing his mobility. Since Junkrat’s mobility was increased, he was both more fun to play and more viable when it came to both damage dealing capabilities and flanking potential. This then hurt the playability of Winston, as Junkrat is an effective counter to Winston with the increased mobility and damage. Similarly, the recovery of the selection of Roadhog came from an increase in his mobility. While this increase to his mobility was less severe than Junkrat’s, it still was the primary cause for the increase in his hero selection rate.

All in all, the mobility and speed at which characters within Overwatch can move defines how the game is played and which strategies are viable. Whenever a character’s mobility is increased, the rate at which they are selected to play as significantly increases, as the number of fights you can engage with increases, leading to a better chance of success. Furthermore, while the hero becomes more disconnected from reality in terms of physics, the enjoyment players experience while playing the game increases as the game becomes more focused on Ilinx.




Clark, Anna Anthropy. Naomi. Game Design Vocabulary: Exploring the Foundational Principles Behind Good Game Design. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2014.

Barash, Meyer. “Caillois: Man, Play and Games.” Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1961.

Blizzard Entertainment. Overwatch. Blizzard, 2016.

Good, Owen S. “Video game developers confess their hidden tricks at last.” Polygon, Polygon, 2 Sept. 2017, www.polygon.com/2017/9/2/16247112/video-game-developer-secrets.

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Hair Barrettes


Continuing my jewelry making streak, I designed and made these for one of my close friends for Christmas. The top barrett is made out of 9 strips of elastic braided together, with a string of pearl-like beads being sown in as well. The bottom barrett is made out of a chain of beads, and white fabric covering the mettalic barrette underneath.

Packing Puzzle

This is the paper prototype for a game that I created. The idea for the mechanics came from pondering over types of puzzles that could thematically fit in a steampunk environment. This is one of my ideas, as the theme is that you are loading supplies into either a wagon or a zeppelin, so the items have to obey certain rules of placement. While I currently have only created 6 puzzles, I could easily create more challenges as well as adding further constraints on the placement of different materials.

If you want to see the solutions, click here!

Gear’s Restoration

As a steampunk enthusiast, I was determined to create a game where the mechanics themselves felt steampunk and the game was distinctive, not just a skin applied to another genre of game. My solution to this dilemma is Gear’s Restoration, a puzzle game which is focused around how gears actually interact in the real world. While I currently only have 10 puzzles, the mechanics are deep enough to easily generate a hundred more.

The first version of the game concept was created out of a hotel notepad, and has undergone playtesting and multiple iterations and revisions to get to the paper product where it currently stands. Once I master Unity, I plan to create a digital prototype. If you want to see a sample playtest questionnaire, please click here. These questions came from Tracy Fullerton’s Game Design Workshop book.

If you wish to see the solutions, please click here.

RNG Gods

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What sacrifice have you made recently to appease the gods of the random number generator? Which god is your patron? Now you can find out using RNG Gods! A strategy resource game with the power to change fate itself. This game comes with three different deities, each with their own unique skill tree and playstyle! Who can build more monuments to their deity first?!

Inspired by people wishing for luck from “RNGesus”, I created this game for my final project in my first year of programming. The game is made in C#.

If you want to download, and play for yourself, click here, and if you want to see the source code, click here!



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Have you ever wanted to take care of a pet, but with none of the hassle? Did you enjoy games like Tamagotchi but found that they took too long? Well I have a game for you: Ikimono! This game contains 5 unique monsters and a shop to spend earned coins. Danger: random events happen when your pet levels up! How long can your pet survive?!

Inspired by games like Tamagotchi, I created this game in my first year of programming. I created all the sprites using GIMP and programmed it using C#.

If you want to try the game for yourself, click here, and if you want to see the source code, click here.