Alghrab is a one-of-a-kind alt.ctrl game, where you try to beat an arrogant animatronic crow at its own card game to earn a prophecy! Created with an entirely custom display table that doubles as storage, custom deck of playing cards, and over 200 voice lines, this animatronic crow comes alive to taunt, jeer, and poke fun at the player as they try to push through Alghrab’s web of tricks. With over 1700 combinations of fortunes, what will Alghrab see in your future?

Alghrab was created as an entirely solo project over the course of 8 months, with a voice actor hired later on in the development process to voice the crow.

I was inspired by the phrase “haunt an object”, where you take an ordinary object and breathe life into it as though a ghost was inhabiting the selected object. Alghrab started as a cheap halloween prop, that I stripped apart and augmented with brand new features and custom components.

The first version of Alghrab was a simple interactive fortune telling machince, since I knew that crows naturally played into mysticism and omens. However, I am extremely skeptical about any type of fortune telling or mysticism, so my solution was to create fortunes, but were fundamentally based off of facts about crows. This gave the fortunes a unique flavoring that can only be felt with this game, and inspired a lot of the bird’s personality and behavior.

From there, I took another look at the design, and constructed a simple card game based around detecting the crow’s lies, inspired by word games like Green Glass Door, while maintaining the fortunes and personality for the crow that had been developed.

Money Making Machine

Money Making Machine is a satirical card game where you manage the University of your dreams, rob your students of all their wealth, and steal your professors’ research for your own! Money Making Machine only requires a standard deck of cards to cheat your way to the #1 spot in the Princeton Review!

Print & Play Available Here!

Additionally, an digitally editable version of the University Sheet is available here!

If you don’t have a physical deck of cards or people to play with in person, you can also play this game using, or TableTopSimulator!

To play on, download this room template, then you should be able to play online!

Golden Loft


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In Golden Loft, you will explore your grandfather’s attic and uncover his fascination with the Golden Ratio. Through this journey, you will learn about the Golden Ratio and Phi. Some of the greatest mathematical minds throughout the ages from the Ancient Greeks to modern day have been entranced by the Golden Ratio and its properties. But this is no boring lecture. Play with various contraptions and curios that your grandfather found in the world and brought back to his attic. Dive into the history of the Fibonacci Numbers and how they got their name, alongside where those numbers appear throughout the world. But most interestingly, you will discover how all of these elements are intertwined and have fascinating relationships with each other, and appear throughout nature, architecture, and art. Play, explore, and learn about the Golden Ratio and Phi in Golden Loft.

This game is available for free on Oculus Rift, Oculus Go, and Oculus GearVR.

This game was created over the course of 3 months with a team of two working full time. The game is designed to teach people about math, without requiring any math or calculations to progress through the experience.

My partner and I inherited this project from another team, furthering their initial concepts and making the game our own. We added more than five times as much content, as well as creating a narrative and tutorial for the game.

For this project, I was in charge of Design, Programming, Research, Writing, Usability, and Sound Design. I ideated and itterated upon every lesson and interactable within the game, as well as implemented and optimized every lesson and interactable. If you would like to see a code sample from this project, please click here.

I also researched Phi, the Golden Ratio, and Fibonacci Numbers extensively, and wrote the dialogue and voice over to condense what I had learned into easily understandable and interesting lines for the player to learn from as they play with various interactables.

Finally, I sourced most of the sounds in the game, as well as editing them to make them appropriate to the context of the game.

Tiny Trees

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Tiny Trees is a competitive tree-building game for 2-4 players where you are a nature spirit trying to become the next Demigod of Trees!

Unlike most board games that lie flat on your table, the trees you grow branch out into the third dimension! Whether you want to relax and creatively grow a tree or focus on the deep-rooted strategy to win, you’ll be creating something you can be proud of from the moment you open the box.

Click here to view our presskit!

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Tiny Trees has been showcased at 4 conventions including Minefaire Houston, Minefaire LA, USC Games Expo, and Indiecade 2018. Tiny Trees was selected as a Indiecade 2018 Finalist!

Tiny Trees also successfully funded on Kickstarter in July 2018, raising over $8.5K from a goal of $5.8K!

Tiny Trees was originally selected as a final project for USC’s cornerstone Game Design Class, where I spearheaded a three-person team in the creative direciton and iteration of mechanics and gameplay.

The game is designed to make players feel proud of what they have created in the process of the game, which led to the creation of a competitive but not adversarial game system.

I have proctored this game in over 70 playtests throughout development, with a focus on delivering upon our user experience goals and easy understanding of our rules. To see an example of the analysis I performed through playtesting, please click here.

Tiny Trees Website

Twitter, Instagram, Facebook


Crescendo is a 2D combat action game, where you conduct a musical world around you through your actions. Travel through an eerie fairy tale world that is teeming with music and battle the monstrous personifications of an orchestra.

This game is available for FREE on itch!

This game was created by a team of 22 over the course of a year, developed completely remotely, with 15-30 minutes of gameplay depending on your success against the enemies! It was also selected to be shown at USC Games Expo 2021!

I was the Lead Designer for this project, and my primary contributions to the team was through Combat Design as well as Documentation. One of the main design constraints and design problems is that this game is centered around its music. So every boss needed to be timed specifically to music, but our team specifically didn’t want this game to be a rhythm game, so the player’s input could enter at any point, but it still had to sound pleasant.

Our design solution to this problem took inspiration from Peter and the Wolf, where each actor on screen has a musical “voice”, each playing the same song, but weaving in and out as the different actors performed certain actions.

I designed and iterated on all three boss fights in the game from the greybox stage to completion. Our combat needed to be slower and more methodical in order to give time for playtesters to identify that a new instrument voice was weaved into the sound.

I also managed and updated the design documentation that was used to communicate between team departments to maintain a similar vision. Click here to view a sample of this design documentation. The diagrams were made by the other designer on Crescendo – Carys Gooi.


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ShortStacked is a couch co-op stealth game where you play as two kids stacked in a trench coat, getting up to comic-worty shenanigans! It’s cute, whimsical, and a little bit chaotic. Actively work with each other to reach your objectives and build a comic-worthy story along the way.

This game is available for FREE on itch!

This game was created over the course of 9 months with a team of about 15 people, and has about 40 minutes of gameplay!

This game was selected to be a showcase game at USC Games Expo 2020!

I was the Lead Designer for this project, and was involved in nearly every facet of the project. However, my largest contributions to the project were in the level design and through creating design documentation for the team.

I designed and iterated every level from the graybox stage to completion, as well as iterated and redesigned the core mechanic. Specifically, the game used to be completely first person, but we shifted it to being completely third person.

For documentation, I updated and maintained the game’s design document that was used as a communication tool between the different teams to better understand the vision of the game. Click here to view the design document.

In addition, I rigged and animated the character model which is used in the final build!

Statistical Analysis of my Magic: The Gathering Cube as of War of The Spark


In order to gain a better understanding of the state of my cube and better learn how to improve various failings of the overall system, I analyzed my cube through comparative power and toughness across various CMCs. This method was selected over rigorous playtesting due to a lack of available play testers as well as reducing the variance in player skill level and preconceived perceptions of the cube.

Because of this analysis, the gameplay created from this designed system leads to an environment that rewarded incremental value and slower game plans, making fast and aggressive strategies far less viable than desired.


Magic: The Gathering is commonly abbreviated as Mtg or MTG and will be used as such throughout this paper. Additionally, this paper analyzes the structure of a larger system through various aspects of a MTG card. Specifically, the comparison between Converted Mana cost and the Power and Toughness of a single card.


            The Converted Mana Cost or CMC of a Magic: The Gathering card is found in the upper right hand corner of a card, and represents the total cost of resources that playing a card consumes. In the case of the Alpine Grizzly pictured above, it costs two resources – or mana – of any type, as well as specifically a green mana, for a total of three. As such, it’s CMC is three.

A creature’s Power and Toughness represent how strong the creature is, and is found in the bottom right hand side of a card. Specifically, the number on the left – power – represents how much damage the creature deals, and the number on the right – toughness – represents how much damage the creature can take before it dies.

Unless specified otherwise, creatures deal damage to each other simultaneously. In the event of our Alpine Grizzly, if it became engaged in combat with a creature with two power and two toughness, both would die. Similarly, if it became engaged in combat with a four power, four toughness creature, both would still die.

Finally, there is an important distinction between offense and defense within Magic: The Gathering. When on the offensive, each creature is an individual, but when defending, creatures can block as a group. For instance, a player on defense can pile fifteen creatures with one power and toughness each in front of a single creature with ten power and ten toughness.


Magic: The Gathering has many formats in which players can battle against each other using a common set of rules. One of these formats is called “Limited”, where the players must build decks from a limited set of MTG cards, hence the name. The way this functionally works is that players buy several packs of magic cards, and then build a single 40 card deck from only the cards they opened, and play against their peers who have completed the same task. There are many sub-genres within the limited Genre of Magic, but the focus of this paper is that of cube. A Magic: The Gathering Cube is a custom curation of MTG cards to create a unique system and environment for a specific style of gameplay. A cube changes the basic formula of limited, as players no longer need to physically purchase packs, but instead simulate packs through drawing from the Cube pool. While many cubes contain only the most powerful magic cards ever printed, many others vary drastically since a cube is custom to the creator, leading to many drastically different environments.

Specifically, my cube is only allowed to include common and uncommon rarity cards and is tailored to be a higher power level compared to most traditional sets, similar to that of a Masters Set. This allows me to showcase some of my favorite cards that are unfortunately not powerful enough for other formats of magic, or aren’t legal anymore. Additionally, this main restriction limits the complexity of the set, which is specifically tailored to my playgroup. Many of the other players that interact with this cube do not have prior experience playing Magic, so this allows for the creation of balanced play experiences, while still having large opportunities for memorable plays. Finally, on a practical standpoint, this, as well as several other restrictions, force me to be more creative with the cards that go into the cube.

My cube is designed to create a synergistic environment, with high choice and medium variance. As Mark Rosewater discusses regarding choice and variance in an article [1], experienced players prefer having high amounts of choice, and competitive prefer low variance, while inexperienced prefer high variance. As this cube is intended to be highly replay-able, the variance creates new situations every time it is played, while the choice creates more dynamic game states.

Furthermore, this cube attempts a heavily synergistic environment, where the combination of certain cards creates more powerful decks than what the card reads by itself. The danger of this type of construction is parasitism, where strategies have very little overlap with one another, greatly decreasing choice when constructing a deck. The most recent example of this effect in a traditional retail set was Ixalan. Ixalan was built as a Tribal set, where Pirates, Vampires, Merfolk, and Dinosaurs fought against one another. The problem was that each tribe had no mechanical overlap with each other, so any Merfolk in a Dinosaur deck weren’t particularly useful. As Nico Bohny says on Channel Fireball, “Ixalan is a draft format without real draft decisions” [2]. This discontent was not felt just from the professionals, but across the player base, with many citing it as one of the worst limited sets for a while. Additionally, the parasitic nature of the cards meant that very few competitive decks throughout Ixalan’s legality in a different format saw any play at all.

For the purpose of this analysis, I observed the power and toughness for cards across all converted mana costs to observe the relative strength and speed of my cube’s format. In magic, there are three large archetypes across any set, which are Aggro, Midrange, and Control, each of which prioritize different strategies to winning. Aggro decks are singularly focused on killing the opponent as fast as possible, and necessitate a large number of cards at one and two CMC. Midrange look to maximize value out of every card that they play, attempting to get more than a single card’s worth of value out of every card. Finally control decks look to abandon the early game, for the sake of overwhelming the other decks in the late game through sheer quantity of resources.

Each of these three archetypes are akin to that of rock-paper-scissors, where Midrange will usually beat Aggro, Aggro will usually beat control, and control will usually beat midrange. However, if there is an imbalance in this triangle, the most rock-like deck will win on average the highest percentage of the time. This became a concern of mine after observing matches taking longer and longer to play to completion.


For this analysis, I organized every card within the cube that created power and toughness, then plotted the difference between offense and defense in Excel, creating a bar-and-whisker graph. Each quadrant in a bar-and-whisker graph represents 25% of the sampling, and single dots qualify as outliers.

As mentioned previously in Terminology, some cards generate multiple creatures per card. These were assigned as multiple instances of their respective power and toughness while attacking, and a single instance of combined power and toughness while defending. For instance, a two CMC card that makes two creatures with one power and one toughness would count as two instances of one power and one toughness while attacking, and one instance of two power and two toughness while defending.

Although this distinction may not completely accurately reflect the ramifications of having multiple creatures from a single card, it presents a decent approximation. Furthermore, other limitations of this analysis include the exclusion of abilities in combat. Examples of these abilities include but are not limited to: first strike, flying, trample, menace, activated abilities, and deathtouch. These abilities change both offence and defense, but were not included within the scope of this analysis.



The first immediate conclusion from this statistical analysis is the impact of cards that generate multiple creatures, and how they change the implications of the closed system when. Across every CMC, the power and toughness of creatures are both reduced by about .25 when attacking as compared to blocking. Although this does not initially appear as a significant difference, this difference is amplified during gameplay.

For instance, when comparing cards of equal CMC, the attacking card usually dies, while the blocking creature usually survives. This is true across every CMC. This greatly disincentivizes attacking, as the aggressive deck will usually lose their creature,  preventing them from actually killing the player. This is then amplified if the aggressive deck is playing second. Most cards in Magic: The Gathering cannot attack the same turn that they are played, so if the aggressive player is going second, the defending player will have a card of one additional CMC to block with. In this situation, the attacker’s creature will virtually always die, and the defender’s creature will virtually always survive. In fact, the only way for an aggressive deck to gain an advantage in sheer power and toughness is if the defensive deck misses a resource, and cannot play a card with the next CMC.

The implications of this power/toughness imbalance only allows for aggro decks to exist if they have a large quantity of spells to continuously remove their opponent’s creatures. This then reduces the number of creatures that exist within the aggressive player’s deck, meaning that there were fewer creatures that the midrange and control decks had to remove before taking over the game state against the aggro decks. As such, any medium to high powered creature played later in the game often lacked an answer from the aggressive player, enabling those handful of cards to quickly take over the game state. This is the reason that previously cut cards from the cube such as Snare Thopter, Cinder Elemental, Tatyova Benthic Druid, and Rakshasa Gravecaller all felt far more powerful than they immediately appeared. Without an appropriate answer from the opposing player, these cards would quickly take over a game within a matter of two or three turns.

Furthermore, the lack of effective offensive individual cards placed a larger emphasis the cards that can make multiple creatures such as Jade Mage, Murmuring Mystic, and Belfry Spirit. When the individual cards cannot attack profitably, creating so many creatures that the opponent physically couldn’t block all of them was one of the few ways left to effectively deal damage to opponents. This importance of cards like these lead players of the cube to frequently complain about the strength of them, when the underlying issue was not just the strength of these cards.

The perceived issue of these cards was then compounded with the general type of spell used to remove your opponents creatures. Most of these removal spells were spot removal effects, which only removed a singular creature on the board. When a singular card creates two creatures, if the opponent spends an entire card to deal with one of the two, they essentially used an entire card to remove only half of yours. This meant that tokens were a powerful strategy for the midrange strategies, further weakening aggressive strategies. Furthermore, the best answers to token strategies are not very effective against the other cards in the cube. There are some cards that give all creatures minus two power and toughness, but these were unwanted by the aggressive decks, and didn’t have much efficacy against the other individual creatures. Specifically, 75% of 1 drops, 50% of 2 drops, 50% of 3 drops, and only 25% of four drops would die to this type of effect, meaning many of these cards would not see play at all, yet were still effective against the aggressive decks.


In order to reduce the imbalance found within the cube, and to provide more to ensure aggressive decks are viable, an overall reduction of creature’s toughness across all CMCs is needed. Specifically, an increase in the number of three mana creatures with three power and two toughness would lead to an increase in aggressive strategies. In particular, it makes aggressively designed one and two CMC cards become more relevant, as a two power one toughness creature will still kill a three mana three power two toughness creature. This ensures that these one CMC creatures will not become irrelevant until much later in the game. Additionally, a three-power creature will end the game in only 7 turns of attacking, instead of 10 turns like that of a two-power creature.

The other impact of increasing the number of three-power two-toughness creatures is that it makes larger creatures more viable as well. A four-power four-toughness creature against two two-power three-toughness creatures cannot effectively attack, since only a single 2/3 will die in exchange for the 4/4. Against 3/2s however, both 3/2s will die in exchange for the single 4/4. This idea is supported by Ari Lax on his block, where he also advocates for the “average” creature to be worth three power and two toughness [3].

Specific investigation will have to proceed to determine which cards to replace with others. This investigation however, revealed how important small adjustments to a system can be, and the rippling ramifications of a slight imbalance in a system. Mathematical analysis of a closed system can provide insight to which components are over or under performing in relation to the others, as well as reveal underlying reasoning behind feedback that you receive as a designer.


Thank you for reading.



[1] Rosewater, Mark. “Variance, Part 1.” Making Magic, Magic: The Gathering, 16 Dec. 2019,

[2] Bohny, Nico. “28 Days Later: Ixalan Limited.” ChannelFireball, ChannelFireball, 2 Nov. 2017,

[3] Lax, Ari. “Limited Design: 3/2 For Three Is the Place to Be.” Less Practical Magic, 17 Jan. 2019,

The Trinketeer – 5e Homebrew Class

The Trinketeer is a custom homebrew class for Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition, allowing the player to create custom modular trinkets for a large variety of effects. Currently there is only one subclass – the Specialty of Traps – but is formatted for the possibility of expansion. Although the Trinketeer is not a spellcasting class, many of the trinkets can feel like spells or function similarly.

The Specialty of Traps is designed for more cunning individuals who want to add an extra level of strategy and planning to their D&D combats. With the possibility for the player to make custom bear traps, timer traps, wire traps, proximity mines, and small dimensional portals, a clever trap maker will always have a tool at their arsenal.

Although the class is similar in nature to the official artificer, this class is unique enough to warrent it’s own classification, similar to the difference between a wizard and a sorcerer.

The module was created using Homebrewery, and sources for images are in the document, with additional watercolor effect made by myself.

If you would like to download this class and play with it for yourself, click here to view a pdf!


You all have been living together for at least several weeks. Recently, people started picketing outside your house. More keep coming. They’re all angry. A Mob is forming. Words on the wind. “Kill them.” “Burn the whole thing down.” Survive against The Mob.

Trapped is a one-page tabletop RPG where your primary goal is to survive the ever growing mob. Trapped is an incredibly flexible system that fits into any level of fantasy or time period that uses a unique mechanic to decide the outcome of uncertain events. Instead of rolling dice, you draw cards from a standard deck of playing cards.

Click here to see the RPG for yourself!

This one-page tabletop RPG was designed for a tabletop RPG class, where we had to design an RPG based on a Grimm’s fairy tale. I selected The Owl, which tells a tale of an owl who rested in a barn, but was mistaken for a monster by the farmers. Many try to rid the barn of the foul beast, but none are brave enough to do so. Ultimately the angry mob decides to burn the barn down with the animal inside.

Trapped! plays out from the owl’s perspective, where the angry mob gets ever closer and closer to killing everyone inside. In order to capture the feeling of an uncontrollable angry mob, I created the deck system instead of rolling dice, in order to phisically represent how much time the players have left. The additional element of randomness also adds to the feeling of the angry mob, as they become further enraged for no apparent reason.

I’m particularly proud of the relationship mechanic I created for character creation, where each player determines their relationship with the player on the right. This leads to emergent gameplay, and informs the player how they should be interacting with other person, which is useful when a game shouldn’t last more than an hour or two.

Fool’s Errand

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Fool’s Errand is a card-based dungeon crawler with deckbuilding elements! Explore through multiple dungeons fighting off manical jesters as you continue on a fool’s errand.

This game was created over the course of 4 weeks in April 2020 with a team of 3 people.

For this project, I was both the lead designer of the project, and programmed any aspect of the game that involved the cards.

This prototype was created as an expirement in communication without using any form of text – numbers or letters. I was inspired by traditional playing cards and their design, and made a dungeon crawler with the intention of eventually building in more deck building elements. Additionally, we experimented with discretization, making the game real time rather than turn based as is genre convention for card based games.

This real-time factor made the game interesting and unique, but made the already difficult to understand game even more confusing, where players were getting frustrated.

This project was voted on by a class of 30 to continue development, where we gained another teammate. Over the next three weeks, we focused on refining the core of the game before expanding into new territory, emphasizing usability.

Now the game is at a state where the core gameloop is entertaining, and additional content can now be built out of this core system!

Click here if you would like to see a code sample, and Click here if you would like to play the game for yourself!